A vascular surgery is a life-saving surgical procedure that is performed in any part of the vascular or circulatory system to treat certain diseases including stroke and aneurysm. To understand why it is sometimes performed, one must know how the vascular system works.
The blood is one of the most important components of the body since it transports the nutrients to different cells. Serving as “highways” are the different parts of the circulatory system namely the arteries, veins, and capillaries (or collectively known as blood vessels).
The arteries are the ones that bring blood from the heart to various parts of the body. The blood then goes back to the heart through the veins. In between them are capillaries that deliver blood to other parts.
The system also includes the heart, which is its "central" component, a hollow muscular organ found in between the lungs, and it pumps blood in between chambers. The lymphatic system works alongside the vascular system since the lymphs are composed of blood and water. Its job is to keep the lymphatic fluid in the right amount by constantly draining it.
Vascular disease is an abnormal condition of the blood vessels. Blood vessels (arteries and veins) are the tubes through which blood is pumped throughout the body. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to nourish every part of the body, including the brain, kidneys, intestines, arms, legs, and the heart itself. Veins carry the blood back to the heart. Problems along this vast network of blood vessels, called the vascular system, can cause severe disability and death.
Vascular disease commonly occurs at sites of turbulent blood flow, such as when the direction of blood flow in the arteries changes abruptly. The figure illustrates sites in the arterial system where this change in direction of blood flow occurs
Arch Branches supply blood to the brain through the carotid arteries, and when diseased, frequently cause life threatening strokes.
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart and, when diseased, can block the flow of blood and cause a heart attack. This is a cardiovascular disease and is primarily managed by heart specialists – cardiologists.
Iliac Arteries supply blood to the hip and the legs and, when diseased, cause leg pain with walking (claudication), often in both legs.
Renal Arteries supply blood to the kidneys and, when diseased, can cause high blood pressure and eventually, kidney failure.
Femoral Arteries supply blood to the legs. If they become diseased, it may cause claudication, usually in the calf muscles. This lack of circulation can lead to continuous pain in the toes and foot, and may progress to critical limb ischemia (CLI).
Vascular disease affects the entire body and includes stroke, peripheral artery disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), carotid artery disease (CAD), arteriovenous malformation (AVM), critical limb ischemia (CLI), pulmonary embolism (blood clots), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), and varicose veins.
Risk factors include:
|Procedure||Min Cost ₹(INR)||Max Cost ₹(INR)|
|Peripheral Vascular Surgery||491546||529358|
|Peripheral Bypass Surgery||478113||678113|
|Aortic Aneurysm Repair||1500000||2000000|
|Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis||100000||200000|
|Renal Artery Aneurysm||70000||120000|
|Renal Vein Thrombosis||20000||175000|
|Arterial Bypass Surgery||300000||500000|
|Carotid Artery Disease||178381||378381|
|Stent Placement Surgery||200000||400000|
|Carotid Artery Stenosis||200000||300000|
|Varicose Vein Surgery||500000||700000|