A liver transplant is a surgical procedure that removes a liver that no longer functions properly (liver failure) and replaces it with a healthy liver from a deceased donor or a portion of a healthy liver from a living donor.
Liver transplant is usually reserved as a treatment option for people who have significant complications due to end-stage chronic liver disease. Liver transplant may also be a treatment option in rare cases of sudden failure of a previously healthy liver.
The number of people waiting for a liver transplant greatly exceeds the number of available deceased-donor livers.
Living-donor liver transplant is an alternative to waiting for a deceased-donor liver to become available. Living-donor liver transplant is possible because the human liver regenerates and returns to its normal size shortly after surgical removal of part of the organ.
Reason for liver transplant
liver transplantation is the surgical removal of a diseased liver and replacing it with a healthy one. It is only considered when all signs point to end-stage liver disease, which can be caused by the following conditions:
Chronic hepatitis – There are many types of hepatitis viruses but only Hepatitis B and C can cause chronic hepatitis. These strains of the hepatitis virus cause inflammation in the liver where they thrive. The repeated occurrence of such attacks may eventually cause liver failure.
Alcohol abuse – Alcoholism is one of the most common causes of liver disease. The amount of alcohol that has to be filtered by the liver in people who drink excessively can be greatly destructive.
Genetic liver disease – These include hemochromatosis (too much iron in the liver) and abnormal metabolism disorders. Liver damage from medications or poisoning.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition in which fat builds up in the liver, causing inflammation or liver cell damage.
Risk factors include:
Impeccable surgical technique remains the most important initial factor in preventing early infectious complications. The urgency of transplantation, surgical history, prolonged operative time, and excessive blood loss are well-documented risk factors. Technical complications requiring reoperation often increase bacterial and fungal infection rates. The need for retransplantation because of severe graft dysfunction and rejection or aggressive treatment of rejection in itself is a major influence on the subsequent development of sepsis in the perioperative period.
Patients with advanced liver disease commonly have a history of smoking, putting them at increased risk for COPD. However, the risk factors for COPD in this population have not been studied. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of COPD in patients with advanced liver disease who were evaluated for liver transplantation.
Steatosis - when the liver becomes infiltrated with fat occurs frequently after liver transplantation, but little is known about its actual prevalence in transplant recipients, which risk factors are involved, or what effects the condition has on patients' survival.
Patients with end-stage liver disease undergo extensive workups before being listed for liver transplantation. The preoperative condition, nature and severity of the liver disease, and comorbid conditions are assessed during the evaluation process. Patients are presented and discussed in a multidisciplinary committee to be approved for final listing.
The first step is to talk with your doctor to find out whether you are a candidate for a transplant. Doctors consider liver transplants only after they have ruled out all other treatment options. However, a liver transplant is not for everyone. Your doctor may tell you that you are not healthy enough for surgery. You may have a medical condition that would make a transplant unlikely to succeed. If you and your doctor think a liver transplant is right for you, your doctor will refer you to a transplant center.
During your first visit to a transplant center, health professionals will provide information about the evaluation and approval process placement on the national waiting list
You will go through a series of evaluations at the transplant center, where you will meet members of your transplant team. You may need to visit the transplant center several times over the course of a few weeks or even months.
Doctor team will ask you about your medical history and perform medical tests. These tests may include a physical exam blood and urine tests
tests that provide pictures of organs inside your body, called imaging tests and tests to see how well your heart, lungs, and kidneys are working.
Once these tests and consultations are completed, the transplant center's selection committee meets to discuss your situation. The committee determines whether a liver transplant is the best treatment for you and whether you're healthy enough to undergo a transplant.
Range of Treatment Cost
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Liver Transplant Surgery
Depends upon the treatment