Visual information is sent from the retina to the brain via the optic nerve. Glaucoma is a term given to varying conditions which cause the optic nerve to become damaged, commonly as a result of too much pressure in the eye where fluid has not properly drained. Yet, even if pressure levels are considered normal, it is still possible for the optic nerve to be damaged.
Eye drops are often used to lower the pressure within the eye. Laser surgery may also be offered to you, though surgery is considered to be the most effective option.
Head and neck: Otolaryngologists can also treat diseases and disorders that affect the face, head, and neck, including infectious diseases, trauma, deformities, and cancers. In this area, otolaryngology might cross over with other specialties, such as dermatology and oral surgery. The field of otolaryngology focuses on seven different areas. Some otolaryngologists will undertake additional study to specialize in one of them and limit their services to their specialty.
treating allergies using medication, immunotherapy, or avoidance of triggers performing surgery on the face, neck or ear for cosmetic, functional, or reconstructive purposes treating or removing tumors of the head and neck, including in the nose and throat managing disorders of the throat treating ear problems, including infections, tumors, and nerve pathway disorders affecting hearing and balance attending to ENT diseases in children, including congenital anomalies and developmental delays managing disorders of the nose and sinuses
1) Blepharoplasty This is the repair of droopy eyelids by removing excess skin, muscle, or fat that may be impairing vision. This procedure often occurs for cosmetic reasons and rarely requires a hospital stay. 2) Endoscopic sinus surgery An otolaryngologist often performs this to treat infectious and inflammatory sinus diseases, such as chronic sinusitis or polyp growth. Otolaryngologists insert an instrument called an endoscope into the nose, which allows them to look at the sinuses. They can then insert and use surgical instruments, including lasers, in order to remove material that is blocking the sinuses. The procedure can occur under local or general anesthetic. 3) Excision and biopsy A surgeon will perform a biopsy to identify suspicious lesions and tumors. These can develop anywhere in the body, and identification is essential for defining an effective course of treatment. They can often perform the removal of small lesions and superficial skin cancers under local anesthetic in an outpatient setting. 4) Facial plastic surgery This type of surgery can be either reconstructive or cosmetic. Otolaryngologists can repair congenital anomalies, such as cleft palates, or conditions that are the result of accidents, previous surgery, or skin cancer. They can also enhance the appearance of the facial structures, including the correction of wrinkles. 5) Myringotomy and pressure equalization (PE) tube placement Otolaryngologists can perform a range of ear surgeries. For people experiencing recurrent middle ear infections or hearing loss due to fluid in the ear, the surgeon can place tubes through the eardrum to allow air into the middle ear. PE tubes can be short- or long-term. A myringotomy is a procedure in which the otolaryngologist makes a small incision in the eardrum to relieve pressure resulting from the excessive build-up of fluid. They can also help to drain pus from the middle ear. 6) Neck dissection This is a major form of surgery to remove cancerous lymph nodes from the neck, performed under general anesthetic. The extent of the surgery depends on the spread of the cancer. Radical neck dissection requires the removal of all tissue from the jawbone to the collarbone on the side of the neck, along with the muscles, nerves, salivary glands, and major blood vessels from this area. 7) Septoplasty This is surgery to correct a deviated septum or to allow greater nasal access nose for the removal of polyps. The procedure can take place under local or general anesthetic and involves the otolaryngologist separating the lining of the nasal passage from underlying cartilage. They will then straighten the bent cartilage as necessary. 8) Surgery for snoring or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) Otolaryngologists have a number of surgical solutions for snoring and OSA. They can remove excess soft palate tissue to open up the airway, such as with radiofrequency thermal ablation to reduce tissue bulk. They can also make the palate stiffer with injections or by inserting stiffening rods to reduce vibration and the risk of collapse. 9) Thyroid Surgery The thyroid sits just below the larynx. Otolaryngologists can remove all or part or all of the thyroid gland in cases of thyroid cancer, suspicious lumps, obstruction of the windpipe or esophagus, or hyperthyroidism. 10) Tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy Tonsillectomy is the surgical removal of tonsils, and adenoidectomy is surgical removal of the adenoids. They are commonly necessary for treating recurrent infections or breathing problems. The procedure typically occurs under general anesthetic, but the patient will not usually need to stay in the hospital. 11) Tracheostomy This is a procedure to create an opening through the neck into the windpipe. The otolaryngologist can insert a tube into this opening to provide an airway or remove secretions from the lungs. Tracheostomy may be necessary to treat several health problems, including cancer of the neck and severe laryngeal disease. 12) Tympanoplasty This type of surgery can repair any defect in the eardrum with a graft or address middle-ear bone disease. Tympanoplasty serves to close perforations, improve hearing, and eradicate disease from the middle ear.
Risk factors include:
|Procedure||Duration In Hospital||Min Cost
|Micro Laryngeal Surgery||1||75000/1050||80000/1100|
|Block dissections of the neck, Endolymphatic Sac||7||380000/5250||500000/6900|
|Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery||2||210000/2890||240000/3300|
|Unilateral With Digisynic Implant||3||1100000/15000||1500000/20600|
|Bilateral With Digisynic Implant||3||2000000/27500||2500000/34300|